FORMS OF INFORMALITY AND ADAPTATIONS IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

Hesam Kamalipour

Abstract


Informal settlements have become integral to the urban imagery of the cities across the global South. Forms of urban informality emerge and grow through some generative processes of self-organisation and incremental adaptations. While formal interventions have often failed to put an end to such a resilient and complex type of urbanism, the desire for eradication and demolishment still prevails. Most of the informal settlements can benefit from incremental upgrading and micro-scale design interventions, which then rely on a sophisticated understanding and analysis of informal morphologies and adaptations. However, forms of urban informality and adaptations of informal settlements are relatively understudied. This paper aims to explore informal morphologies and their incremental adaptations drawing on empirical evidence from the case study of Khlong Toei district in Bangkok (Thailand). Direct observation, visual recording, and urban mapping are the key research methods. Five different forms of informality and adaptations have been identified in this study. One of the findings of this study is that informal morphologies emerge in different forms at multiple scales. Another finding of this study is that informal adaptations are often similar across different informal morphologies. The findings of this paper contribute to the growing body of knowledge in urban morphology and informal urbanism.


Keywords


Urban morphology; incrementalism; typology; informal settlement; mapping

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alexander, C. (2002). The process of creating life: an essay on the art of building and the nature of the universe. Berkeley, CA: Center for Environmental Structure.

Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press.

AlSayyad, N. (2004). Urban Informality as a “New” Way of Life. In A. Roy & N. AlSayyad (Eds.), Urban informality: Transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia (pp. 7–30). New York: Lexington.

Angel, S., Parent, J., Civco, D. L., Blei, A., & Potere, D. (2011). The dimensions of global urban expansion: Estimates and projections for all countries, 2000–2050. Progress in Planning, 75(2), 53–107. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progress.2011.04.001

Arefi, M. (2011). Order in Informal Settlements: A Case Study of Pinar, Istanbul. Built Environment, 37(1), 42–56.

Askew, M. (2002). Bangkok, place, practice and representation. London: Routledge.

Bayat, A. (2000). From “Dangerous Classes” to “Quiet Rebels”: Politics of the Urban Subaltern in the Global South. International Sociology, 15(3), 533–557. http://doi.org/10.1177/026858000015003005

Berner, E., & Korff, R. (1995). Globalization and Local Resistance: The Creation of Localities in Manila and Bangkok. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 19(2), 208–222. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1995.tb00501.x

Bhatt, V., & Rybczynski, W. (2003). How the other half builds. In D. Watson, A. J. Plattus, & R. G. Shibley (Eds.), Time-saver Standards in Urban Design (p. 1.3.1-1.3.12). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Brillembourg, A., & Klumpner, H. (2010). Rules of engagement: Caracas and the informal city. In F. Hernández, P. Kellett, & L. K. Allen (Eds.), Rethinking the informal city: critical perspectives from Latin America (pp. 119–136). New York: Berghahn Books.

Brillembourg, A., & Klumpner, H. (Eds.). (2013). Torre David: informal vertical communities. Zurich, Switzerland: Lars Muller.

Bunnell, T., & Harris, A. (2012). Re-viewing informality: perspectives from urban Asia. International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 339–348. http://doi.org/10.3828/idpr.2012.21

Corner, J. (1999). The agency of mapping: Speculation, critique and invention. In D. Cosgrove (Ed.), Mappings (pp. 213–252). London: Reaktion Books.

Davis, H. (2006). The culture of building. New York: Oxford University Press.

Davis, M. (2006). Planet of slums. London: Verso.

Dick, H. W., & Rimmer, P. J. (2003). Cities, transport, and communications: the integration of Southeast Asia since 1850. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dovey, K. (2011). Uprooting critical urbanism. City, 15(3-4), 347–354. http://doi.org/10.1080/13604813.2011.595109

Dovey, K. (2012). Informal urbanism and complex adaptive assemblage. International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 349–367. http://doi.org/10.3828/idpr.2012.23

Dovey, K. (2013). Informalising Architecture: The Challenge of Informal Settlements. Architectural Design, 83(6), 82–89. http://doi.org/10.1002/ad.1679

Dovey, K. (2014). Incremental Urbanism: The Emergence of Informal Settlements. In T. Haas & K. Olsson (Eds.), Emergent Urbanism: Urban Planning & Design in Times of Structural and Systemic Change (pp. 45–53). Burlington, USA: Ashgate.

Dovey, K., & King, R. (2011). Forms of informality: morphology and visibility of informal settlements. Built Environment, 37(1), 11–29.

Dovey, K., & King, R. (2012). Informal Urbanism and the Taste for Slums. Tourism Geographies, 14(2), 275–293. http://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2011.613944

Duarte, P. G. B. (2009). Informal settlements: A neglected aspect of morphological analysis. Urban Morphology, 13(2), 138–139.

Edensor, T., & Jayne, M. (Eds.). (2012). Urban theory beyond the West: A world of cities. London: Routledge.

Gehl, J., & Svarre, B. (2013). How to study public life. (K. A. Steenhard, Trans.). Washington, DC: Island Press.

Gilbert, A. (2004). Love in the Time of Enhanced Capital Flows: Reflections on the Links between Liberalization and Informality. In A. Roy & N. AlSayyad (Eds.), Urban informality: Transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia (pp. 33–66). New York: Lexington.

Habraken, N. J. (1998). The structure of the ordinary: form and control in the built environment. (J. Teicher, Ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Hakim, B. S. (2007). Generative processes for revitalizing historic towns or heritage districts. Urban Design International, 12(2), 87–99.

Hakim, B. S. (2008). Mediterranean urban and building codes: origins, content, impact, and lessons. Urban Design International, 13(1), 21–40.

Hakim, B. S. (2014). Mediterranean Urbanism: Historic Urban/Building Rules and Processes. New York: Springer.

Hamdi, N. (2004). Small change: about the art of practice and the limits of planning in cities. London: Earthscan.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House.

Kamalipour, H. (2016a). Mapping Urban Interfaces: A Typology of Public/Private Interfaces in Informal Settlements. Spaces & Flows: An International Journal of Urban & Extra Urban Studies, in press.

Kamalipour, H. (2016b). Urban Morphologies in Informal Settlements. Contour, Agency/Agents of Urbanity, in press.

Kamalipour, H., & Peimani, N. (2015). Assemblage Thinking and the City: Implications for Urban Studies. Current Urban Studies, 3(4), 402–408. http://doi.org/10.4236/cus.2015.34031

Kamalipour, H., & Zaroudi, M. (2014). Sociocultural Context and Vernacular Housing Morphology: A Case Study. Current Urban Studies, 2(3), 220–232. http://doi.org/10.4236/cus.2014.23022

Kellett, P., & Tipple, A. G. (2000). The home as workplace: a study of income-generating activities within the domestic setting. Environment and Urbanization, 12(1), 203–214. http://doi.org/10.1177/095624780001200115

King, R. (2011). Reading Bangkok. Singapore: NUS Press.

King, R., & Dovey, K. (2013). Active interstices. In A. M. Brighenti (Ed.), Urban Interstices: The Aesthetics and the Politics of the In-between (pp. 183–203). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Kramer, M. (2006). Dispossessed: life in our world’s urban slums. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Lapping, M. B. (1973). Vernacular Environments: The Squatter Settlements. The Journal of Popular Culture, 7(2), 446–450. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1973.0702_446.x

Marshall, S. (2009). Cities, Design & Evolution. London; New York: Routledge.

Mehaffy, M. W. (2008). Generative methods in urban design: a progress assessment. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 1(1), 57–75. http://doi.org/10.1080/17549170801903678

Miraftab, F., & Kudva, N. (2014). Introduction. In F. Miraftab & Kudva (Eds.), Cities of the Global South Reader (pp. 1–6). Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Moudon, A. V. (1997). Urban morphology as an emerging interdisciplinary field. Urban Morphology, 1, 3–10.

Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

Neuwirth, R. (2004). Shadow cities: a billion squatters, a new urban world. New York: Routledge.

Parnell, S., & Robinson, J. (2012). (Re)theorizing Cities from the Global South: Looking Beyond Neoliberalism. Urban Geography, 33(4), 593–617. http://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.33.4.593

Patel, S., & Baptist, C. (2012). Editorial: Documenting by the undocumented. Environment and Urbanization, 24(1), 3–12. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956247812438364

Peimani, N., & Kamalipour, H. (2016). Where Gender Comes to the Fore: Mapping Gender Mix in Urban Public Spaces. Spaces & Flows: An International Journal of Urban & Extra Urban Studies, 8(1), 19–30.

Perlman, J. E. (1976). The Myth of Marginality: Urban Poverty and Politics in Rio de Janeiro. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Portugali, J. (1997). Self-organizing cities. Futures, 29(4–5), 353–380. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-3287(97)00022-0

Ribeiro, G. (1997). An ecological approach to the study of urban spaces: the case of a shantytown in Brasilia. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 14(4), 289–300.

Robinson, J. (2002). Global and world cities: a view from off the map. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26(3), 531–554. http://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00397

Roy, A. (2009). The 21st-Century Metropolis: New Geographies of Theory. Regional Studies, 43(6), 819–830. http://doi.org/10.1080/00343400701809665

Roy, A. (2011). Slumdog Cities: Rethinking Subaltern Urbanism. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35(2), 223–238. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2011.01051.x

Roy, A., & AlSayyad, N. (2004). Urban informality: Transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia. New York: Lexington.

Salingaros, N. A. (2000). Complexity and Urban Coherence. Journal of Urban Design, 5(3), 291–316. http://doi.org/10.1080/713683969

Simone, A. (2009). City life from Jakarta to Dakar: movements at the crossroads. New York: Routledge.

Solà-Morales, I. (1995). Terrain vague. In C. Davidson (Ed.), Anyplace (pp. 118–123). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Tonkiss, F. (2013). Cities by design: the social life of urban form. Cambridge: Polity.

UN-HABITAT. (2006). The state of the world’s cities report 2006/7: The Millennium Development Goals and urban sustainability. London: Earthscan.

Wattanawanyoo, K. (2012). Poverty tourism as advocacy: a case in Bangkok. In F. Frenzel, K. Koens, & M. Steinbrink (Eds.), Slum tourism: Poverty, power and ethics (Vol. 32, pp. 207–214). London: Routledge.

Yap, K. S., & De Wandeler, K. (2010). Self-help housing in Bangkok. Habitat International, 34(3), 332–341. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2009.11.006


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, DOAJ, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons.

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2016

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014