I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra, Mirjana Lozanovska, Robert Fuller

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v11i1.1134


Some traditional houses in Bali have been transformed for tourist facilities. As a cultural phenomenon, the transformation involves an interrelated complexity of aspects in the houses. There is a need for a holistic approach to contextualize the complexity of the impact of tourism on the transformation. Unfortunately, an instrument to identify the textures of the transformation, as a fundamental phase to explore the complexity, is not yet available. The objective of this study is to develop an inclusive methodology based on criteria as the fundamental stage in the multiple holistic method developed. Using visual documentations of 749 traditional houses from four villages, the findings show that the transformation has been considered in various ways, both as the additive sum of the specific changes, and as a hierarchy of cultural traditions and activities. It was a process generally found to begin at the front part of the houses, followed by the backyard and pavilions, and in the final phase at the family temple. This method was able to systematically assess the physical configuration of the transformed house.


Method; baseline data; the traditional Balinese house; transformation; evaluation

Full Text:



Agung, I.A.A.G. (1991). Bali in the 19th century. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Ardika I. M. (2007). Pusaka budaya dan pariwisata. Denpasar: Pustaka Larasan.

Beyham, S.G. & Gurkan, U.C. (2015). Analyzing the relationship between urban identity and urban transformation implementation in historical process: the case of Isparta. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 9 (1), 158-180.

Clifford, J. (1994). The predicament of culture: Twentieth-century ethnography, literature, and art. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Covarrubias, M. (1974). Island of Bali. Kualalumpur: Oxford University Press.

Danes, P. (2001). Balinese architecture from cosmic to modern. In U. Ramseyer & I G.R.P. Tisna (eds), Bali living in two worlds (pp. 95-104). Basel: Museum der Kulturen and Verlag Schwabe & Co.AG.

Eiseman Jr, F.B. (1989). Sekala and niskala, volume I: Essays on religious, ritual and art. Singapore: Periplus Editions.

Eisenstadt, S.N. (1973). Post-traditional societies and the continuity and reconstruction of tradition. Daedalus, Post-Traditional Societies, the MIT Press on behalf of American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 102 (1), (Winter, 1973), 1-27.

Ferschin, P. & Gramelhofer, A. (2004). Architecture as information space, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Information Visualisation, IV(04).

Gelebet, I N. (1986). Arsitektur tradisional daerah Bali. Denpasar: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Geriya I W. (2007) Konsep and strategi revitalisasi kearifan lokal dalam penatan lingkungan hidup daerah Bali. In A.A.G.R. Dalem, I.W. Wardi, I.W. Suarna & I.W.S. Adnyana (eds), Kearifan lokal dalam pengelolaan lingkungan hidup, (pp. 52-60). Denpasar: Penerbit Universitas Udayana.

Gharib, R.Y. (2014). Sustainable assessment tool of historic centers: The cases of Bath and Cambridge. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 8 (1), 108-119.

Gusfield, J. R. (1967). Tradition and modernity: Misplaced polarities in the study of social change. American Journal of Sociology, 72 (4), 351-362.

Haddad, N.A. & Fakhoury, L.A. (2016). Towards developing a sustainable heritage tourism and conservation action plan for Irbid’s historic core. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 10 (3), 36-59.

Hall, S. (1990). Cultural identity and diaspora. In J. Rutherford (ed), Identity, community, culture difference, (pp. 222-237). London: Lawrence and Wishart.

Hobart, A., Ramseyer, U. & Leemann, A. (2001). The people of Bali. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Johnsen, S.A. (2007). From royal house to nation: The construction of Hinduism and Balinese ethnicity in Indonesia (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Virginia United States.

Kamalipour, H. (2016). Form of informality and adaptations in informal settlements. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 10 (3), 60-75.

Lim, W.S.W. (2004). Architecture, art, identity in Singapore: Is there life after Tabula Rasa. In P. Herrle & S. Schmitz (eds), Constructing identity in contemporary architecture: Case studies from the South, (pp. 233-287). Munster: Lit Verlag.

Liu, Y. (2009). Construction ethnic identity: Making and remaking Korea-Chinese rural houses in Yanbian, 1881-2008. TDSR, XXI (1), 67-82.

Logan, W.S. (1994). Hanoi townscape: Symbolic imagery in Vietnam’s capital. In Askew & W.S. Logan (eds), Cultural identity and urban change in Southeast Asia: Interpretative essays (pp. 43-69). Geelong: Deakin University Press.

Mantra, I.B. (1993). Bali masalah sosial budaya dan modernisasi. Denpasar: Upada Sastra.

Meganadha, I W. (1990). Pola tata ruang arsitektur tradisional dalam perumahan KPR-BTN di Bali (Unpublished magister thesis). Institut Teknologi Bandung-Indonesia.

Nordholt, H.S. (1986). Bali: Colonial conceptions and political change 1700-1940 from shifting hierarchies to ‘fixed’ order. Rotterdam: Erasmus.

Oktay, D. & Bala, H.A. (2015). A holistic research approach to measuring urban identity: Finding from Girne (Kyrenia) area study. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 9 (2), 201-215.

Picard, M. (1996). Bali: Cultural tourism and touristic culture. Singapore: Archipelago Press.

Prameswari, A.Y. (2005). Faktor-faktor pendorong dan penarik wisatawan memilih Bali sebagai daerah tujuan wisata (unpublished magister thesis). Universitas Udayana Bali Indonesia.

Qian, Z. (2007). Historic district conservation in China: Assessment and prospects. TDSR, XIX (1), 59-70.

Rapoport, A. (1969). House, form and culture. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Inc.

Runa, I W. (2004). Sistem spasial desa pegunungan di Bali dalam perspektif sosial budaya (unpublished PhD dissertation). Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia.

Sentosa, L.S. (1994). Continuity and change in Balinese dwelling environments: A socio-religious perspective (unpublished PhD thesis). Georgia Institute of Technology.

Shils, E. (1971). Tradition. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 13(2), Special Issue on Tradition and Modernity, 122-159.

Sprague, S. (1970). Bali island of light. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd.

Sueca, N.P. (2003). Housing transformation: Improving environment and developing culture in Bali (unpublished PhD thesis). University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Tipple, A.G. (2000). Extending themselves: User-initiated transformations of government-built housing in developing countries. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Tipple, A.G., Master, G.A. & Garrod, G.D. (2000). An assessment of the decision to extend government-built houses in developing countries. Urban Studies, 37 (9), 1605-1617.

Vale, L.J. (1992). Architecture, power, and national identity. New Haven & London: Yale University.

Vickers, A. (1989). Bali: A paradise created. Ringwood Victoria: Penguin Books Australia Ltd.

Vickers, A. (1996). Modernity and being modern: An Introduction. In A Vickers (ed), Being modern in Bali: Image and change (pp. 1-37). Monograph 43 New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.

Waterson, R. (1993). Houses and the built environment in island South-East Asia: Tracing some shared themes in the uses of space. In J.F. James (ed), Inside Austronesian houses: Perspectives on domestic design for living (pp. 221-242). Canberra, Australia: Department of Anthropology, the Australian National University.

Widja, I M. (2004). Eco house pada rumah tradisional Bali. Studi kasus: Desa Mengwi, Badung. Jurnal Permukiman Natah, 2, (1), 25-37.

Wijaya, M. (White, M.) (2003). Architecture of Bali: A sourcebook of traditional and modern forms. London: Thames and Hudson.

William, R. (1983). Culture and society: 1780–1950. New York: Columbia University Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018


Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014