IMPORTING URBAN GIANTS: Re-Imaging Shanghai and Dubai with Skyscrapers

Kheir Al-Kodmany, Mir M. Ali, Tingwei Zhang

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v7i2.153

Abstract

Shanghai and Dubai have recently marked a new epoch in the history of skyscrapers. Through the examination of these two cities, this paper attempts to identify the key driving  forces for constructing skyscrapers in newly emerging global cities. The findings indicate that in addition to economic factors, globalization, political support, tourism, branding, openness to Western culture are the primary drivers that spurred the proliferation of skyscrapers in  Shanghai and Dubai. While globalization has facilitated the spread of homogeneity and standardized architectural practices, it has also simultaneously pushed star architects to create unique architecture as exemplified by some of the iconic skyscrapers in Shanghai and  Dubai. Moreover, these two cities are compared and criticized for using skyscrapers as a means to attain international stature and to enhance global imageability at the expense of environmental well-being and quality of life. The paper recommends embracing a “glocal” approach that strikes a b lance between the local needs and global forces so that a distinct  local identity is ensured while global forces are addressed.

Keywords

Globalization, architecture, skyscraper, place identity, culture

Full Text:

PDF

References

Aboulnaga, M.M. (2006). Towards green buildings: Glass as a building element-the use and misuse in the Gulf region. Renewable Energy 31, 631-653.

Acuto, M. (2010). High-rise Dubai: Urban entrepreneurialism and the technology of symbolic power. Cities, 27(2), 272- 284.

Ahmed, A. (2005). Study on water taxi service between Dubai and Sharjah gets underway, Gulf News, 9 August.

Albrow, M. (1996). The global age: State and society beyond modernity. Stanford University Press.

Ali, S. (2010). Dubai: Gilded cage. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Ali, M.M. & Armstrong, P.J. (2008). Overview of sustainable design factors of high-rise buildings. Proceedings of the CTBUH 8th World Congress: Tall and Green – Typology for a Sustainable Urban Future, Dubai, March 3-5, 282-291.

Al-Kodmany, K. (2012a). Guidelines for tall buildings development.

International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, 1(4), 255-269.

Al-Kodmany, K. (2012b). Sustainable tall buildings: Toward a comprehensive design approach. International Journal of Sustainable Design, 2(1), 1–23.

Al-Kodmany, K. & Ali, M.M. (2013). The future of the city: Tall buildings and urban design. Southampton, UK: WIT Press.

Bagaeen, S. (2007). Brand Dubai: The instant city; or the instantly recognizable city. International Planning Studies, 12(2), 173-197.

Baker, W.F., Korista, D.S., & Novak, L.C. (2007). Burj Dubai: Engineering the world’s tallest building. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 16, 361-375.

Bradley, A., Hall, T. & Harrison, M. (2002). Selling cities, Cities, 19(1), 61–70.

Beedle, L., Ali, M. M. & Armstrong, P. J. (2007). The Skyscraper and the city: Design, technology, and innovation. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

China Statistical Yearbook (2012). http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/publications/t20121011_402841708.htm, retrieved June 1, 2013.

Croll, E. (2006). China’s new consumers: Social development and domestic demand. London: Routledge.

Dalton, K. & John, R. (2008). Towards more sustainable tall buildings. Proceedings of the CTBUH 8th World Congress: Tall and Green – Typology for a Sustainable Urban Future, Dubai, March 3-5, 60-68.

Dor, D. (2004). From Englishization to imposed multilingualism: Globalization, the Internet, and the political economy of the linguistic code. Public Culture, 16(1), 97-118.

EMAAR (2006). Burj Khalifa’s grand vision. http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/TheTower/Vision.aspx, retrieved June 1, 2013.

Giddens, A. (1991). The consequences of modernity. Oxford: Polity Press.

Abbinnett, R. (2003). Culture and identity: Critical theories. SAGE Publications Ltd.: London, UK.

Habermas, J. (2006). The divided West. Oxford: Polity Press.

Hsu, S., Dehuang, N. & Woodside, G. (2009). Storytelling research of consumers’ self-reports of urban tourism experiences in China. Journal of Business Research, 62, 1223-1254.

Kong, L. (2007). Cultural icons and urban development in Asia: Economic imperative, national identity, and global city status. Political Geography, 26, 383-404.

Ledgard, J. (2013). The space he is in (in the intelligent life profile section). The Economist, London, January 5-11, 9-13.

Lee, L.O. (1999). Shanghai modern: The flowering of urban culture in China 1930-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard College.

Lepik, A. (2008). Skyscrapers. Munich, Germany: Prestel Verlag.

Li, Z. & Wu, F. (2006). Socioeconomic transformations in Shanghai (1990-2000): Policy impacts in global-national-local contexts. Cities, 23(4), 250-268.

Lin, G. (2003). The Chinese globalizing cities: National centers of globalization and urban transformation. Progress in Planning, 61,143-157.

Martona, A.M. & Wub, W. (2006). Spaces of globalization: Institutional reforms and spatial and economic development in the Pudong new area, Shanghai. Habitat International, 30, 213–229.

Moor, B. (2006). On the skyscraper as a building type in an era of uncertainty, globalization and environmentalism. A thesis presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Building Construction.

http://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/UF/E0/01/77/02/00001/moore_b.pdf, retrieved June 1, 2013.

Norberg-Hodge, H. (1999). Consumer monoculture: The destruction of tradition. Global Dialogue, 1(1). http://www.worlddialogue.org/content.php?id=22, retrieved June 1, 2013.

Olds, K. (1997). Globalizing Shanghai: the ‘global intelligence corps’ and the building of Pudong. Cities, 14(2), 109-123.

Pacione, M. (2005). City profile Dubai. Cities, 22(3), 255-265.

Reuters (2010). Factbox: Why does the UAE have such a high carbon

footprint?http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/10/13/us-emirates-sustainability-factbox-idUSTRE69C5FQ20101013, retrieved January 1, 2013.

Simeng, C. (2006). Safety Concern over Shanghai's Skyscrapers. Business, May Issue. http://english.cri.cn/855/2006/05/19/481@91556.htm, retrieved June 1, 2013.

Smith, A. (2007). Lust for Height. The American Magazine. January/February Issue. http://www.american.com/archive/2007/january-february-magazine-contents/0116-lust-for-height,retrieved June 1, 2013.

Springer, K. (2012). Soaring to sinking: how building up is bringing Shanghai down. Ecocentric. May Issue. http://science.time.com/2012/05/21/soaring-to-sinking-how-building-up-is-bringing-shanghai-down/, retrieved June 1,

Starrett, V. (1928). Seaport in the moon. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company.

Stiglitz, J. E. (2002). Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton Company.

Willis, C. (1995). Form follows finance: Skyscrapers and skylines in New York and Chicago. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Wood, A. (2011). Best tall buildings 2010, CTBUH international award winning projects. Council on Tall Buildings & Urban Habitat (CTBUH), New York: Routledge.

Wu, F. (2000). Place promotion in Shanghai, PRC. Cities, 17(5), 349-361.

Wua, F. & Mab, L.J.C. (2006). Transforming China’s globalizing cities. Habitat International, 30, 191–198.

Wu, W. (1999). City profile Shanghai. Cities, 16(3), 207-216.

Xia, J., Poon, & Mass, D. (2010). Case study: Shanghai Tower, CTBUH Journal, 2, 12–18.

Yan, G. & Santos, C.A. (2009). China, Forever tourism discourse and self-orientalism. Annals of Tourism Research, 36(2), 295-315.

Yeoman, I. (2008). Tomorrow’s tourist: Scenarios and trends. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Zhang, T. (2007a). Innovation in Chinese urban governance: The Shanghai experience, in Hambleton and Simone (eds.), Governing cities in a global era (113-124). New York: Palgrave.

Zhang, T. (2007b). Urban development patterns in China, in Song and Ding (eds.) Urbanization in China (3-28). Cambridge: Lincoln Land Institute.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR



ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014