THE URBAN TRANSFORMATION OF TRADITIONAL CITY CENTRES: HOLY KARBALA AS A CASE STUDY

Sabeeh Lafta Farhan, Mohamed Gamal Abdelmonem, Zuhair A. Nasar

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v12i3.1625

Abstract

Karbala is one of the metropolitan cities in Iraq, its historic and religious centre has a long history, yet many of its buildings are under threat because of unclear conservation management due to urban transformation. The history of religious rituals and processions reflects an array of values, concepts and planning philosophy that has used the power of religion and holiness of the city as a source of homogeneity and integration. By looking at the mass-pilgrimage spatial practices to the Holy Shrines in Karbala city centre and the adaptation by its residents of their domestic neighbourhoods, this paper analyses the spatial conditions of the city and offers insights into a set of factors that have shaped its historical evolution and urban spaces.    The paper is in three parts; first, it discusses the causes of the urban transformation in this holy city. Secondly, it documents a set of everyday practices and problems in Karbala city, focusing on the urban level (the traditional fabric), following the analytical method of the historic evolution of Karbala as a religious centre as well as the incompatibility of the modern development with the centre’s historical heritage.  Thirdly, it analyses the transformation of the urban structure by discussing the characteristics of the historical centre and the role of legislation in urban transformation of traditional city centres.


Keywords

holy Karbala; urban transformation; architectural preservation; traditional urban fabric; holy shrines

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abdelmonem, M.G. (2017). Architectural and Urban Heritage in the Digital Age: Dilemmas of Authenticity, Originality and Reproduction. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 11(3), 5-15.

Abdelmonem, M.G., Selim, G., Mushatat, S., and Almogren, A. (2017). Virtual Platforms for Heritage Preservation in the Middle East: The Case of Medieval Cairo. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 11(3), 28-41.

Akbar, J. (1988). Crisis in the Built Environment: The Case of the Muslim City. Singapore: Concept Media.

Al Baladiyya, Al-Abbas and Al Mualimeen Mustafa, Shaker. (1988). Cities in Islam until the Ottoman era: Part II. Dar Al-Sallas: Kuwait.

Ansari, R.M.A. (2006). Karbala - Architectural and Planning Study (1st ed.). Al-Salhani Foundation for Printing: Damascus.

Al-Kalidar, M.H.M. (1971). The History Of Karbala Or The City Of Al-Hussein. July Printing Press: Karbala.

Al-Kildar, A-J. (1967). History of Karbala and Hajir al-Husayn (peace be upon him). Al-Haydariya Printing Press: Najaf.

Al-Mufid, S. (1981). Kitab al-Irshad. I. K. A. Howard: London.

Al-Qarashi, B.S. (2007). The life of Imam Hussain. Qum: Ansariyan Publications.

Aqil A. H. (2004). A Dialog of Recent Physical Structure and its Effects on the Formation of the Arabian City. A Study of Continuous / Discontinuous in the Structure of Karbala City. A thesis for the Degree of Master of Science in Urban and Regional Planning, Baghdad University.

Al-Tabari, M. I. (1991). History of the Prophets and Kings; Volume XIX the Caliphate of Yazid ibn Muawiyah, translated by I.K.A Howard, SUNY Press.

Atanur, O. (2006). Urban Transformation Process: Ulus Historical City Center Planning Project. In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Degree Of Master Of Science In Urban Design In City And Regional Planning Middle East Technology University.

Attia, H. N. (2008). Notes on the expansion of the sanctuary roofing Al-Husseini Al-Sharif. Taf Printing Press: Karbala.

Attia, H. N. (1997). The Ability to Development of the Holy Shrines in Karbala city, a thesis for the Degree of Master of Science in Architecture Engineering Baghdad University College of Engineering.

Attia, H. N. (2013). Activation of urban renewal centers Iraqi city: An analytical study of religious cities, A thesis for the Degree of PhD of Science in Architecture Engineering Baghdad University College of Engineering.

Bilal, A. (1995). Urbanization and urban development in the Muslim World: From the Islamic City Model to megacities. Geo Journal, 37(1), 113-123.

Department of Planning and Engineering. (1977). Project of the development of holy shrines in Karbala. Department of Planning and Studies: Baghdad.

Doxiadis. (1958). The future of Karbala. Ministry of Planning, Iraq.

Faraj, H. H. (2012). The Development of Iraqi Shi’a Mourning Rituals in Modern Iraq: A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts Arizona State University.

Hakim, B. S. (1986). Arabic –Islamic cities, building and planning principles. London, New York and Henley.

Hiyam, M. (2012). Urban Morphology of Holy Karbala City, A thesis for the Degree of Master of Science in urban and regional planning, Baghdad University.

Husein, US.M. (2018). A phenomenological study or Arbaeen foot pilgrimage in Iraq. Tourism Management Perspectives, 26, 9-19.

Hussam, S. O. (2013). Morphological Transformations In Historical Cities Centers, A thesis for the Degree of PhD of Science in Architecture Engineering Baghdad University College of Engineering.

Howard, I, K. A. (1990). The History of al-Tabari. University of New York Press: Albany.

Jinan, A. S. (2011). The Role Of Redevelopment In Highlighting The Height Of The Urban Landscape In The Holy Cities, A thesis for the Degree of Master of Science in urban and regional planning, Baghdad University.

Khalili, J. (1978). Encyclopedia of the Holy Saints (2nd ed.). Department of Karbala, Al-Amali Institute for Publications: Beirut.

Laursen, L. L. H. (2009). Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation, Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University.

Montgomery, M.R. et al. (2004). Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World by the Panel on Urban Population Dynamics, National Academy of Sciences. First published in the UK, Earthscan.

Mutman, D. and Turgut H. (2018). Colliding Urban Transformation Process: The Case of Historical Peninsula, Istanbul. Archnet IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 12(1), 164-181.

Nakash, Y. (1993). An Attempt to Trace the Origin of the Rituals of Āshurā. Die Welt des Islams, 33 (2), 161-181. doi:10.1163/157006093X00063.

Nakanishi, H. (2014). Urban Transformation Transit Oriented Development and the Sustainable City. Routledge: London.

Nasar, Z. (2015). The Sacred Shrines on Directing the Movement Axes within The Urban Fabric of The Islamic Holy Cities- An-Najaf Al-Ashraf as a case study. University of Babylon Journal for Engineering, 4(23).

Psarra, S. (2012). Spatial morphology, urban history and design in Julienne Hanson’s ‘Urban transformations: A history of design ideas’. The Journal of Space Syntax, 3(1).

Rasha, M. (2001). The Impact of Changing Traffic Path Systems in Land Use in the Traditional Center of Karbala City A Study of Continuous / Discontinuous in the Structure of Karbala City, A thesis for the Degree of Master of Science in urban and regional planning, Baghdad University.

Republic of Iraq Ministry of Planning Central Statistical Organization. (2010). Demographic Statistics report on population state; Available from http://cosit.gov.iq/en/joomla-templates.

Rossi, A. (1982). The Architecture of the City (Opposition Books). Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Sadiq K. A (2017). An examination of heritage protection and conservation practices in the pilgrimage city of Najaf. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Sheffield, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Architecture.

Shimma, M., Habibi- M.M. (2004). Urban Renovation- Urban Method and Operations. Tehran University.

Taei, I.A. (1989). The use of aerial survey and remote sensing in the development of urban expansion axes - Study area - Karbala city, A thesis for the Degree of Master of Science in Urban and Regional Planning, Baghdad University.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Sabeeh Lafta Farhan, Mohamed Gamal Abdelmonem

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014