A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE DESIGN OF A SURVEY INSTRUMENT IN POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION: Defining Indicators for a Human-Based Study in Rural Built-Environment

Didem Gunes Yilmaz, Jason Von Meding, Gul Kacmaz Erk

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v7i3.48

Abstract

Reconstruction projects built in the post-disaster period have become ever more visible over the past three decades. Research studies completed in this context generally aim to evaluate the finished projects through the viewpoints of either dwellers or implementing actors. Each study deals with a different type of disaster, occurring in a specific context; thus, their target beneficiary group and project focus are varied as well. Due to such differentiations, each researcher aims to put their specific criteria and indicators, or to follow a previous study in same context, to examine the phenomenon and to evaluate it at the end. This study focuses upon the post-earthquake permanent housing projects built by the state in the last two decades in rural eastern Turkey, and the target participant group is the rural dwellers in these settlements. Questionnaire survey is the main data collection tool for this study, and in this paper the theoretical approach to the preparation of the questionnaire is explained in detail. This approach covers selecting and categorizing the indicators, and extending their reasons by examining previous studies done either in Turkey or other countries.


Keywords

Project evaluation; rural context; post-disaster reconstruction; eastern Turkey; questionnaire development

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adger, W. N., Brooks, N., Betham, G., Agnew, M., & Eriksen, S. (2004). New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Technical Report 7.

Arslan, H., & Unlu, A. (2006). The Evaluation of Community Participation in Housing Reconstruction Projects after Duzce Earthquake, 2006 International Conference and Student Competition on post-disaster reconstruction "Meeting stakeholder interests" Florence, Italy.

Audefroy, J. D. (2010). Post-disaster emergency and reconstruction experiences in Asia and Latin America: an assessment, Development in Practice, 20:6:664-677.

Baradan, B. (2008). “Review of Literature for the Concept of Post-Disaster Housing in Turkey”, G. U. Journal of Science, 21:2:43-49.

Bayrak, Y., Ozturk, S., Koravos, C. G., Levetakis, K. A. and Tsapanos, T. M (2008). Seismicity assessment for the different regions in and around Turkey based on instrumental data: Gumbel first asymptotic distribution and Gutenberg Richter cumulative frequency law, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 8:109-122.

Behloul, M. (1991). Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Five Storey Walk Up Dwellings: The Case of Four Mass Housing Estates in Algiers, PhD Thesis, University of Sheffield, Department of Architecural Studies, Sheffield, UK.Bordass, W.,

Leaman, A., and Eley, J. (no date). A Guide to Feedback And Post-occupancy Evaluation, http://goodhomes.org.uk/.

Berke, P. B., & Campanella, T. J. (2006). Planning for Postdisaster Resiliency, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604:192-207.

Buttenheim, A. (2009). Impact evaluation in the post-disaster setting: A conceptual discussion in the context of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, 3ie Working Paper series, Working Paper 5.

Coskun, Z. K. (2005). Deprem Sonrası Planlamada Yeni Yerleşim Bolgesi Yaklasimi: Adapazari Ornesi/New Settlement Areas in Planning Process After Earthquake: Adapazari As An Example, MSc Thesis, Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

CURBE (2010). Disaster Recovery Indicators: guidelines for monitoring and evaluation, Cambridge University Centre for Risk in the Built Environment.

Dagistanli, K. (2007). Mimarsız Mimarlık ve Bingol, Kigi, Alagoz Koyu Uzerine Bir Inceleme, An analysis of Architecture without Architect and Bingol, Kigi, Alagoz Village, MSc Thesis, Graduate Institute of Natural Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Darkwa, I. (2006). Post-Occupancy Evaluation of State-Subsidised Housing Units in Kayamandi- Stellenbosch, MSc. Thesis in Consumer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Demirbas, C. (2008). Deprem Bolgesi Konutlari icin Ic Mekanlarin Guvenlik Analizi ve Cozum Onerileri/ Safety Analysis and Suggestions of Solution in Interior Spaces for Earthquake Region Housing, MSc. Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, The Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Interior Architecture, Trabzon, Turkey.

Demirli, M. E. (2011). Socio-spatial Analysis of Urban Renewal In the Case of Relocating Kadifekale Inhabitants to TOKI Uzundere, Master of Design Thesis, Izmir University of Economics, The Graduate School of Social Sciences, Izmir, Turkey.

Dikmen, N. (2005). A Provision Model and Design Guidelines for Permanent Post-disaster Housing in Rural Areas of Turkey Based on an Analysis of Reconstruction Projects in Cankiri, PhD Thesis, Middle East Technical University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Architecture, Ankara, Turkey.

Dwyer, A., Zoppou, C., Nielsen, O., Day, S. & Roberts, S. (2004). Quantifying Social Vulnerability: A methodology for identifying those at risk to natural hazards, Austaralian Government, Geoscience Australia, Commonwealth of Australia.

Efficiency Unit (2009). Serving the Community Through Successful Project Delivery: A User Guide to Post Implementation Reviews, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Enginoz, E. B. (2006). A Model For Post-disaster Reconstruction: The Case Study in Dinar-Turkey, 2006 International Conference and Student Competition on post-disaster reconstruction "Meeting stakeholder interests", May 17-19, Florence, Italy.

Ersan, Z. F. (2006). Kahramanmaraş Kenti Toplu Konut Uygulamalarının Kullanım Sonrası Değerlendirilmesi/ The post-occupancy evaluation of mass hosing application of Kahramanmaras City, MSc Thesis, Cukurova University, The Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Adana, Turkey.

FEMA (2005). Chapter 3: Policies for Guiding Planning and Post-disaster Recovery and Reconstruction, available on http://www.fema.gov/pdf/rebuild/ltrc/fema_apa_ch3.pdf.

Gok, Y. (1995). Gerek Köyü'nde 30 Ekim Sonrası Yapılan Afet Konutlarının Başlıca Planlama Sorunları (The problems in planning of the post-disaster houses in the village of Gerek), DOĞU COĞRAFYA DERGİSİ/EASTERN GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Vol:1 No:1, 174-199.

Gok, Y. (1996). Erzurum-Kars Depreminin Ekonomik ve Sosyal Sonuçları/Economical and Social Results of the Earthquake in Erzurum-Kars (On October 30th 1983), Ataturk University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Geography, PhD Thesis, Erzurum, Turkey.

Gok, Y. (2001). Erzurum-Kars Depremi'nden (1983) Sonra Yeri Değiştirilen Yerleşmeler/The replacement of the settlements after the earthquake, Erzurum-Kars, 1983, DOĞU COĞRAFYA DERGİSİ / EASTERN GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Vol: 7, No:5, pp:145-158.

Gok, Y., Zaman, S., & Altas, N. T. (2007). Askale Depremnlerinden Sonra Insa Edilen Konutların Sosyo-ekonomik Yonden Incelenmesi (The Socio-Economıc Analysis Of Residences That Were Built After Askale Earthquake), DOĞU COĞRAFYA DERGİSİ / EASTERN GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, 12:8:111-134.

Gok, Y. (2011). Erzurum-Kars Depremi (30 Ekim 1983) İle Aşkale Depremleri (25–28 Mart 2004) Sonrası İnşa Edilmiş Olan Afet Konutlarının Coğrafi Açıdan Karşılaştırılmaları/Geographic Comparison of Disaster Homes Built after Erzurum-Kars Earthquake (30 October 1983) and

Aşkale Earthquakes (25–28 March 2004), DOĞU COĞRAFYA

DERGİSİ / EASTERN GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, 16:25:67-88.

Gur, M. (2009). Alt ve Orta Gelir Grubuna Yonelik TOKI Konutlarında Kullanıcı Memnuniyetinin Araştırılması: Bursa Ornegi/An investigation on user satisfaction in TOKI constructions for low and middle income people: The example of Bursa, MSc. Thesis, Uludag University, The Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Bursa, Turkey.

Hayli, S. (2001). Erzincan ovasında köy meskenleri (Les Domiciles dans les Villages de la Plaine d'Erzincan), (The village settlements in the plateau of Erzincan), Fırat University Journal of Social Science, 11:2:21-42.

Holland, R. (2006). The Experimental Application of an Occupant Tracking Technology for Domestic Post-Occupancy Evaluation, PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

IFRC (2012). Post-disaster settlement planning guidelines, Geneva, Switzerland.

Inal, E. (2008). Afet Sonrası Kalıcı Konutlarda Esneklik Kavramının Değerlendirilmesi: Golyaka-Duzce/Evaluation of Flexibility Notion on Post-disaster Permanent Housing: Golyaka-Duzce, PhD Thesis, IstanbulTechnical University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Architecture, Istanbul, Turkey.

Korkmaz, M. N. (2006). Diyabakir ve Sanliurfa’daki Toplu Konutların Kullanım Sonrası Degerlendirilmesi: Karşılaştırmalı bir analiz / A comperative analysis of post-occupancy evaluation of mass hosing settlements in Diyarbakır and Şanlıurfa, MSc. Thesis, Dicle University, The Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Diyarbakir, Turkey.

Koutsikouri, D., Austin, S., & Dainty, A. (2008). Critical Success Factors in Collaborative Multi-Disciplinary Projects, Joıurnal of Engineering Design and Technology, 6:3:198-226, Emerald Group Publishing.

Kuyucu, T., & Unsal, O. (2010). ‘Urban Transformation’ as State-led Property Transfer: An Analysis of Two Cases of Urban Renewal in Istanbul, Urban Studies, 47:7:1479-1499.

Leersum, A., & Arora, S. (2011). “Implementing seismic-resistant technologies in post-earthquake Pakistan: A process analysis of owner-driven reconstruction”, Elsevier Ltd.,Habitat International, 35:254-264.

McCarthy, F. X. (2010). FEMA Disaster Housing: From Sheltering to Permanent Housing, Congressional Research Service, USA.

Mohapatra, R. (2009). Community Based Planning in Post-Disaster Reconstruction: A Case Study of Tsunami Affected Fishing Communities in Tamil Nadu Coast of India, PhD Thesis, University of Waterloo, Department of Planning, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Onder, D. E., Koseoglu, E., Bilen, O., & Der, V. (2010). The effect of user participation in satisfaction: Beyciler afterearthquake houses in Duzce, ITU Journal of Architecture, 7:1:18-37.

Orhan, V. (2008). Toplu Konutlarda Kullanım Aşaması Kalite Değerlendirmesi: Eryaman 7. Etap Toplu Konut Uygulaması/ Quality Evaluation of Mass Housing fort he Occupancy Process:7th Stage Eryaman Mass Housing Application, MSc Thesis, Gazi University, The Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Ankara, Turkey.

Ophiyandri, T., Amaratunga, D., & Pathirage, C. (2012) ‘Critical success factors for community-based post-disaster housing reconstruction project (CPHRP) in pre-construction stage in Indonesia’, Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, Conference Series, 1:2:80-92.

Peker, K. (2004). The causes and results of internal migration from rural areas: case of Eastern Anatolia, Agricultural Economy- CZECH, 50:10:471-476.

Sarpkaya, A. (2011). Bir Kentsel Dönüşüm Ironisi:Osaniye’de Yapılan ;Yeni Toplu Konut Uygulamaları/ The Irony of an Urban Renewal: The New Public Housing Applications in Osmaniye, MSc Thesis, Cukurova University, The Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Adana, Turkey.

Tercan, B. (2008). Afet Bölgelerinde Yeniden Yerleştirme ve Iskan Politikaları: Dogubeyazıt Afetzede Yerleşim Alanları Uygulamaları / Relocation and Resettlement Policies on Disaster Areas: The Case of Doğubayazıt Province and Four Villages, PhD Thesis, Ankara University, The Graduate School of Social Sciences, Department of Politics and Public

Administration, Ankara, Turkey.

Tezer, A., & Yigiter, R., (2000). “Impacts of 17th August Kocaeli Earthquake on the Develeopment of Rural Settlements”, 40th Congress of The European Regional Science Association, Barcelona, Spain, 29 August-1 September 2000.

Ulubas, A. (1980). Post-earthquake Housing in the Villages of Gediz, Proceeding of the 7th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 9:360-362, Istanbul, Turkey.

UNCHS, The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (2001). Guidelines for the Evaluation of Post Disaster Programme-A Resource Guide, available on http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?cid=1264&catid=286&typeid=16.

UNDRO, Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-Ordinator (1982). Shelter after Disaster: Guidelines for Assistance, New York, USA.

Unlu, A., Kapucu, N., & Sahin, B. (2010). Disaster and crisis management in Turkey: a need for a unified crisis management system, Disaster Prevention and Management, 19:2: 155-174.

World Bank (2010). Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing after Natural Disasters, Chapter 5: To Relocate or Not To Relocate.

Zappettini, K. (2001). Rural Self-Help Housing: A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Homeowners’ Satisfaction with Residential Space Plan and Housing Quality, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, PhD Thesis in Near Environments, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Zariç, S. (2012). “City Planning in Turkey and the Dimension of Enlargement in TOKI’s Planning Power”, KirghizTurkish Institute of Social Sciences, E-Journal of Social Sciences, 28:1-19.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR



ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014