HOUSING AND RECONSTRUCTION IN CHILE (2010-2012): Institutional and social transformation in post-disaster contexts

Camila Cocina Varas, Camillo Boano

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v7i3.49

Abstract

Stemming from the assumption that disasters present unique conditions to rethink the associations and relationships among different actors, while acknowledging post disaster reconstruction as a political process that may generate momentum for institutional transformation; this article discusses the institutional responses to housing in such a transformative moment. Grounding the empirical terrain into the 2010 Chilean earthquake, the article is concerned with how the institutional response to housing needs has been influenced by the neoliberal context and civil society in the aftermath of the event. Its objective is to review the changes in housing policy over this period, and to what extent these changes are proposing a new social order, or consolidating the existing one; to what extent civil society claims can challenge contexts of exclusion; and to what extent the actors’ roles change or remain static. To do so, it develops a series of criteria to apply to the reconstruction process and housing policy transformation that took place after the earthquake. The main findings show that the institutional responses have promoted the consolidation of a model rather than a transformative process. By contrast, social organisations have embraced elements of transformation towards collective capability strengthening that are not necessarily recognised by formal institutions.


Keywords

housing policy; reconstruction; Chile; institutional transformation; right to the city; neoliberalism

Full Text:

PDF

References

Amaral, Verónica (2010). Las 7 diferencias entre Frei y Piñera. Presentation in forum “Vivienda y Ciudad, 7 Diferencias”. Santiago, 02-12-2010. [Available on http://www.plataformaurbana.cl/archive/2010/01/12/las-7 diferenciasentre-frei-y-pinera/], (Accessed 11/07/2012).

Atria, Fernando (2012). La mala educación: Ideas que inspiran el movimiento estudiantil en Chile. Santiago: Catalonia/CIPER.

Barakat, Sultan (2003). Housing reconstruction after conflict and disaster, HPG Network Paper 43, Overseas Development Institute, Humanitarian Practice Network, Humanitarian Policy Group, London, ODI.

Boano, C. (2009) Housing anxiety, paradoxical spaces and multiple geographies of post tsunami housing intervention in Sri Lanka. Disasters, Vol. 34(3) pp: 762-785.

Boano, C. (2013). Architecture must be defended: informality and the agency of space [Digital scholarly resource]. Retrieved from http://www.opendemocracy.net/opensecurity/camillo-boano/architecture-must-be-defended-informalityand-agency-of-space.

Boano, C., & Garcia, M. (2011). Lost in translation? The challenges of an equitable post-disaster reconstruction process: Lessons from Chile. Environmental Hazards, 10 (3-4), 293-309.

Boano, C., Garcia La Marca, M, & Hunter, W. (2013). “Contested Urbanism”. In Boano, C, Hunter, W, Newton, C (Eds.), Contested Urbanism in Dharavi. Writings and Projects for the resilient city (pp. 15-37). London: Development Planing Unit.

Boano, C., Hunter, W., (2012) “Architecture at Risk (?): The Ambivalent Nature of Post-disaster Practice”. Architectoni.ca Vol. 1, pp: 1-13

Bresciani, Luis Eduardo (2010). Chile 27F 2010: La catástrofe de la falta de planificación. EURE, vol.36, N°108, pp.151-153.

Cociña, Camila (2010). "Ideología y reconstrucción. Levantar ciudades y ciudadanías" in Mardones, Patricio (Editor) Catálogo XVII Bienal de Arquitectura, Chile: Reconstrucción. Santiago: Colegio de Arquitectos, pp.52-65.

Cooke, Bill and Kothari, Uma (2001). “The case of Participation as Tyranny” in Cooke, Bill and Kothari, Uma (eds.) Participation – the new Tyranny? London: Zed Books.

Cornwall, Andrea (2003). Whose voices? Whose choices? Reflections on gender and participatory development. World development, 31(8) pp.1325-1342.

Dikeç, Mustafa (2005). Space, politics, and the political. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol.23, pp.171-188.

Dong, Andy (2008). “The Policy of Design: A Capabilities Approach”, Design Issues Vol.24(4), pp.76-87. Echenique, Juan and Ramírez, Pedro (2011). El primer año de la reconstrucción no se financió. Ciper Chile. [Available on http://ciperchile.cl/2011/05/12/el-primer-ano-de-la-reconstruccion-no-se-financio/] (Accessed 26/06/2012).

Edwards, Sebastián (1995). Crisis and Reform in Latin America: From Despair to Hope. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fiori, J., Riley, E., & Ramirez, R. (2001). Physical upgrading and social integration in of Rio de Janeiro: the case of Favela Bairro. disP-The Planning Review, 37(147), 48–60.

Frediani, Alexandre (2009). The world bank. Turner and Sen - Freedom in the urban arena. DPU Working Paper, N.136.

Frediani, A. A., & Boano, C. (2012). Processes for Just Products: The Capability Space of Participatory Design. In I. Oosterlaken, J. V. D. Hoven (Eds.), The Capability Approach, Technology and Design. Springer Verlag.

Garcés, Mario (2002). Tomando su sitio: Movimiento de pobladores de Santiago, 1957-1970. Santiago: Lom.

Harvey, David (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harvey, David (2008). The Right to the city. New left review, N.35, pp.23-40.

Hickey, Sam and Mohan, Giles (2005). Relocating Participation Within a Radical Politics of Development. Development and Change, Vol. 36(2), pp.237-262.

Hidalgo, Rodrigo (1999). “La vivienda social en Chile: la accion del estado en un siglo de planes y programas”. Scripta Nova Nº 45(1). Electronic version [http://www.ub.edu/geocrit/sn-45-1.htm] (Accessed 16/03/2012).

Ivelic, Pablo (2010). Exposición plan gubernamental de reconstrucción urbana, territorial y vivienda. Seminar in Colegio de arquitectos, Santiago, Chile, 14/07/2010.

Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

Latour, Bruno (2005). Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lechner, Norbert (2006). Norbert Lechner, Obras escogidas. Tomo 1. Santiago: Lom.

Levy, Caren (1997). “Institutionalization of Gender through Participatory Practice”, in The Myth of Community.

Lyon M, Schinderman T, Boano C., D’Urzo, S. (2010) “Conclusions”, in M. Lyon T. Schinderman, with C. Boano (eds) Building Back Better. Delivering People-centered housing reconstruction at scale, Practical Action Publishing: Rugby, pp. 345-359.

Madanipour, Ali (2000). “Social exclusion and space”, in LeGates & Stout (eds.) The City Reader, Routledge, London; pp.181-188.

Mayer, Margit (2009). The ‘Right to the City’ in the context of shifting mottos of urban social movements. City, Vol.13(2- 3), pp.362-374.

Miessen, Markus (2010). “Collaboration and the Conflictual” in The Nightmare of Participation, pp.91-104. Berlin: Sternberg Press.

MINVU (2012). Avance en Vivienda [Available on http://www.minvu.cl/opensite_20111122104351.aspx] (Accessed

/07/2012).

Rebolledo, Nicolás (2011). La gran deuda del sector vivienda. Ciper Chile. [Available on http://ciperchile.cl/2011/03/07/la-gran-deuda-del-sector-vivienda/] (Accessed 06/11/2011).

Rodríguez, Alfredo (1990). Desastres urbanos, fenómenos no–naturales. Medio ambiente y urbanización, N.30, pp.11- 20.

Rodríguez, Alfredo and Sugranyes, Ana (2004). El problema de vivienda de los “con techo”. EURE, 30 (91), pp.53-65.

Sanoff, Henry (2008). Multiple Views of Participatory Design. International Journal of Architectural Research. Vol. 2(1), pp.57-69.

Sentidos Comunes (2011). Un año sin reconstrucción. Santiago: Sentidos Comunes. [Available online on http://www.sentidoscomunes.cl/diario/2011/03/dossier-1-un-ano-sin-reconstruccion/] (Accessed 14/08/2012).

Valenzuela, Nicolás (2012). ¿Cómo va la reconstrucción? Evaluación del modelo de construcción post 27F 2010. Presentation in CEP Seminar, Santiago, 11th April 2012. [Available on http://www.reconstruye.org/2012/04/presentacion-de-reconstruye-en-el-cep-como-va-la-reconstruccion/] (Accessed 25/07/2012)

Young, Iris (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Zetter R., Boano, C. (2010) “Making space and place after natural disasters and forced displacement”, in Lizarralde, G., Johnson, C., Davidson, C., (eds.) Rebuilding after Disasters: From Emergency to Sustainability. Taylor and Francis: London, pp: 206-231


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR



ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014