Pancawati Dewi, Ami Arfianti



Bonfire became the earliest form in shaping space when people gathered around the fire. It was stated by Vitruvius and developed by many theoretician of architecture. Nowadays, the role of fire to the space (architecture) lessened and even disappeared along with technology development. Contrarily, the phenomenon in Tengger showed different result. The presence of hearth (pawon) in Tenggerese house became stronger. It could be seen from the increasing number of hearth there.This research shows, there was a close connection between society structure along with time factor and the number of hearth along with its use in Tenggerese house. The number of hearth in a house could be increased if the number of family members were increased as well. It is possible that the segmentation of hearth space in Tenggerese house could be affected by the influence of the number of family members to the changes of hearth. This possibility would be explored in the research. Interpretive-Historic research method was used in the research to explore the phenomenon found in the field. By exploring field data and historical data, it was finally shown the influence of the changes number in family members to the segmentation of hearth space in Tenggerese house, particularly those related to the marriage and mortality. Space segmentation, especially segmentation of the hearth space in Tengger successfully demonstrated a close link with the change in the numbers of family members.


Hearth (pawon); change; space; time; segmentation

Full Text:



Attoe, W. (1978). Architecture and Critical Imagination. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Campbell, J. (1987). The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology. New Zealand: Penguin Books.

Cahyono, D. (2000), Ritus pergantian tahun: Studi kasus upacara Karo. In: Harian Surya, Sabtu 15 January 2000.

Crowe, N. (1997). Nature and the Idea of a Man-made World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Dewi, P. (1999). The ‘First Place’ in Tenggerese Dwelling. In: Herlily (eds.), International Seminar on Vernacular Settlement 1999, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, 3-4th August 1999. 133-141.

Dewi, P. (2000a). Api dan Arsitektur: Kajian Kritis terhadap Pandangan Vitruvius dengan Kasus Arsitektur Tengger”. Unpublished master thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya.

Dewi, P. (2000b). In: Santosa, Mas (eds.), International Seminar Sustainable Environmental Architecture 2000, ITS, Surabaya, 23-24th October 2000, 194 - 200.

Dewi, P. (2006). Fire & Space: Living with Fire, A case study in Ngadisari Village”. In: Feriadi, Henry (eds.), 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design in Tropical Regions ‘Harmony in Culture and Nature’ 2006, Dept. of Architecture Faculty of Engineering Duta Wacana Christian University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 3-5th April 2006. P8-1 – P8-7.

Dewi P. and Prijotomo (2007). PER-API-AN di TENGGER: Dari Kompleks ke Majemuk. Jurnal NALARS, 6 (2), 96-179, edition July 2007, ISSN 1412-3266, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta.

Dewi, P. (2011). Peran Perapian dalam Rumah Tinggal Masyarakat Tengger, Studi Kasus: Desa Ngadisari Tengger. Unpublished Dissertation, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya.

Dewi D. & Darjosanjoto (2011). The Use of Hearth in Tengger Society of East Java. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(2), March 2011, 108-114, Baku, Azerbaijan.

Ewing, S. (2006). Hearth and Cloth: Dwelling Practice and Production in Eastern Tibet. In: Narrating Architecture, eds. Madge, James & Peckham, Andrew, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London, 419-438.

Groat, L. and Wang, D. (2002). Architectural Research Methods. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA.

Hayat (2003). Bertahannya Tradisi Tengger dalam Masyarakat yang Sedang Berubah. In: Agama Tradisional, eds. Nurudin, Salviana dan Faturrohman, LkiS, Yogyakarta, 151-160.

Kent, S. (1990). A cross-cultural study of segmentation architecture, and the use of space. In: Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space. Kent, S., Cambridge University Press, 127-152.

Lee, S. H. (1989). Siting and General Organization of Traditional Korean Settlements. In: Dwellings Settlements and Tradition, eds. Bourdier, J. & Al Sayyad, N. University Press of America, 295-316.

Lee, S. H. (2003). Traditional Korean Settlements and Dwellings, in Asia’s Old Dwellings Traditional, Resilience, and Change, ed. Knapp, Ronald, Oxford University Press, New York, 373-392.

Newiger, U. (2006). Kisah Masyarakat Tengger di Gunung Bromo: Putra Sang Dewa Api. PT Toko Gunung Agung Tbk, Jakarta.

Takwin, B. (2003). Filsafat Timur Sebuah Pengantar ke Pemikiran-Pemikiran Timur, Edisi Kedua, Jalasutra, Yogyakarta.

Rykwert, J. (1981). On Adam’s House in Paradise. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Santosa, R. B. (2000). OMAH Membaca Makna Rumah Jawa, Yayasan Bentang Budaya, Yogyakarta.

Salviana D. S. (2003). Modal Sosial Masyarakat Adat Tengger dalam Menjaga Tatanan Sosial. In: Agama Tradisional, eds. Nurudin, Salviana dan Faturrohman, LkiS, Yogyakarta, 87-96.

Sulistyaningsih (2003). Partisipasi Politik Masyarakat Tengger. In: Agama Tradisional, (eds.) Nurudin, Salviana dan Faturrohman, LkiS, Yogyakarta, 161-174.

Tuan, Y. F. (1977). Space and Place: the Perspective of Experience. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis.

Unwin, S. (1997). Analysing Architecture. London: Routledge.

Vitruvius, M. and Hicky M. (1960).The Ten Books on Architecture. (Translated), New York: Dover Publications Inc.

Weston, R. (2011). 100 Ideas That Changed Architecture. London: Laurence King Publising Ltd.

Webster, H. (2013). On the Other Side of Sorrow: Reimagining the Highland Longhouse. Journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments, TDSR. XXV(I, Fall 2013), 69-80.

Widyaprakosa, S. (1994). Masyarakat Tengger Latar Belakang Daerah Taman Nasional Bromo. Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

Zurick, D. and Shrestha, N. (2003). Himalayan Dwellings: a Cultural-Environmental Perspective. In: Asia’s Old Dwellings Traditional, Resilience, and Change. (Ed). Knapp, R. G., Oxford University Press, New York, 15-38.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018


Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014