THE RECONCILIATION OF HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT: The Success of Criteria in Guiding the Design and Assessment of Contemporary Interventions in Historic Places

Roha W. Khalaf

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v9i1.504

Abstract

Since built heritage continues to teach contemporary societies valuable lessons about traditional building practices among other substantial matters, its protection from environmentally insensitive development is important. The reconciliation of heritage conservation and development, therefore, is an appropriate research topic. This article aims at contributing to the global discourse on that topic, which is primarily supported by UNESCO and ICOMOS. It does so by evaluating the success of criteria in guiding the design and assessment of contemporary interventions in historic places. The purpose is to determine whether criteria, which usually come in the form of standards and/or design guidelines, hold the key to thoughtful change in historic places. To achieve this purpose, the present author first gives an overview of the current state of knowledge on the topic, then analyzes major scholarly literature to identify the strengths and weaknesses of criteria and finally suggests other avenues worth exploring. As a result of this qualitative research, readers would gain a better understanding of the background, questioning and principles that should frame new architecture in existing urban fabric.


Keywords

Assessment; change; heritage conservation; design intervention.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adam, R. (2010). Lessons from History in the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes. In: R. V. Oers & S. Haraguchi (Eds.), World Heritage Papers n°27: Managing Historic Cities (pp. 81-88). Paris, Ile-de-France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

Alderson, C. (2006). Responding to Context: Changing Perspectives on Appropriate Change in Historic Settings. Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin, 37 (4), 22-33. DOI: 10.2307/40003213

Bandarin, F., & Oers, R. V. (2012). The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century. Chichester, West Bay: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bennett, G. (2006). The Vienna Memorandum and the Conservation of the Historic Urban Landscape. In: Christina Cameron, (Ed.), Round Table organized by the Canada Research Chair on Heritage and the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes, Montreal, Canada, 9 March 2006. pp. 47-54. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-47-4.pdf

Brolin, B. C. (1980). Architecture in Context: Fitting New Buildings with Old. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Cameron, C. (2008). How the World Heritage Committee Deals with Defining and Protecting Important Views? In: C. Cameron & C. Boucher, (Eds.), Round Table organized by the Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage on World Heritage: Defining and Protecting Important Views, Montreal, Canada, 18-20 March 2008. pp. 22-31. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.patrimoinebati.umontreal.ca/pdf/PV_Table_ronde_2008.pdf

Carlhian, J. P. (1980). Guides, Guideposts and Guidelines. In National Trust for Historic Preservation (Ed.), Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship (pp. 49-68). Washington, DC: The Preservation Press.

Cavaglieri, G. (1980). The Harmony that Can’t Be Dictated. In National Trust for Historic Preservation (Ed.), Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship (pp. 37-48). Washington, DC: The Preservation Press.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Saga Publications.

Curtis, W. J. R. (1996). Modern Architecture since 1900. 3rd ed. London, UK: Phaidon Press Limited.

Elsheshtawy, Y., (2008). The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development (Ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Goldberger, P. (1980). To Preserve the Visibility of Time. In: National Trust for Historic Preservation (Ed.), Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship (pp. 258-266). Washington, DC: The Preservation Press.

Golding, F. (2001). Building in Context: New Development in Historic Areas. London, UK: English Heritage/CABE.

Gustavo, A. F. (2011). Preserving Heritage Places Under a New Paradigm. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 1(1), 55-60. DOI: 10.1108/20441261111129933

Hawker, R. (2008). Traditional Architecture of the Arabian Gulf: Building on Desert Tides. Southampton, UK: WIT Press.

HUL. (2014). The World Heritage Institute of Training and Research for the Asia and the Pacific Region Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.historicurbanlandscape.com/

ICOMOS. (1964). The Venice Charter: International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites. ICOMOS Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014 from http://www.icomos.org/charters/venice_e.pdf

ICOMOS. (1987). Washington Charter: Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas. ICOMOS Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014 from http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/towns_e.htm

ICOMOS. (1994). The Nara Document on Authenticity. ICOMOS Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.icomos.org/charters/nara-e.pdf

Jayyusi, S. K., Holod, R., Petruccioli, A., & Raymond, A., eds. (2008). The City in the Islamic World. Leiden, South Holland: Koninklijke Brill NV.

Joslin, J., Karlsson K., & Michaelson, R. (2011). Compatible Infill Design: Principles for New Construction in Oregon’s Historic Districts. Portland, Oregon: Historic Preservation League of Oregon.

Khalaf, R. W. (2012). Traditional vs. Modern Arabian Morphologies. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 2(1), 27-43. DOI: 10.1108/20441261211223252

Khalaf, R. W. (2013). An Approach to Compatible New Buildings in Historic Urban Environments: Case Study in the Arabian Gulf Region. Unpublished PhD thesis, Université de Montréal. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from https://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/handle/1866/10213

Loew, S. (1998). Modern Architecture in Historic Cities: Policy, Planning and Building in Contemporary France. London, UK: Routledge.

Lu, W. (1980). Preservation Criteria: Defining and Protecting Design Relationships. In National Trust for Historic Preservation (Ed.), Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship (pp. 186-202). Washington, DC: The Preservation Press.

Luxen, J. L. (2004). Reflections on the Use of Heritage Charters and Conventions. Conservation Perspectives, The Getty Conservation Institute Newsletter on Conservation, 19(2), 4-9. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/pdf/v19n2.pdf

Macdonald, S. (2011). Contemporary Architecture in Historic Urban Environments. Conservation Perspectives, The Getty Conservation Newsletter on Historic Cities, 26(2), 13-15. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/pdf/v26n2.pdf

NSW Heritage Office & The Royal Australian Institute of Architects NSW Chapter Infill Guidelines Working Party. (2005). Design in Context: Guidelines for Infill Development in the Historic Environment. Parramatta & Potts Point, NSW: Heritage Office & RAIA NSW Chapter.

Oers, R. V. (2006). Preventing the Goose with the Golden Eggs from Catching Bird Flu: UNESCO’s Efforts in Safeguarding the Historic Urban Landscape. In: 42nd Congress of the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISoCaRP) on Cities between Integration and Disintegration, Istanbul, Turkey, 14-18 September 2006. pp. 1-13. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-666-9.pdf

Oers, R. V., and Haraguchi, S. (2010). World Heritage Papers n°27: Managing Historic Cities (Eds.). Paris, Ile-de-France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

Oers, R. V., and Roders, A. P. (2012). Historic Cities as Model of Sustainability. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 2(1), 4-14. DOI: 10.1108/20441261211223298

Rapoport, A. (1987). On the Cultural Responsiveness of Architecture. Journal of Architectural Education, 41(1), 10-15. DOI: 10.2307/1424903

Rodwell, D. (2007). Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

Rodwell, D. (2012). The UNESCO World Heritage Convention, 1972-2012: Reflections and Directions. The Historic Environment, 3(1), 64-85. DOI: 10.1179/1756750512Z.0000000004

Semes, S. W. (2008a). New Buildings among Old: Historicism and the Search for an Architecture of Our Time. American Arts Quarterly Newington-Cropsey Cultural Studies Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.nccsc.net/legacy/new-buildings-among-old

Semes, S. W. (2008b). Updating the Venice Charter Forty Years On. In: M. Hardy (Ed.), Venice Charter Revisited: Modernism, Conservation and Tradition in the 21st Century (pp. 697-705). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Semes, S. W. (2009). The Future of the Past: a Conservation Ethic for Architecture, Urbanism, and Historic Preservation. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

Smith, J. (2006). The Vienna Memorandum and Shifting Paradigms for Conservation. In: C. Cameron, (ed.), Round Table Organized by the Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage on Heritage and the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes, Montreal, Canada, 9 March 2006. pp. 67-71. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-47-4.pdf

Smith, J. (2010). Marrying the Old with the New in Historic Urban Landscapes. In: R. V. Oers & S. Haraguchi (Eds.), World Heritage Papers n°27: Managing Historic Cities (pp. 45-52). Paris, Ile-de-France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

Smith, J. (2012a). Editorial No.6. Willowbank Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.willowbank.ca/content/beta/home/about-us/new/archived-editorials/editorial-6/

Smith, J. (2012b). Editorial No.8. Willowbank Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.willowbank.ca/content/beta/home/about-us/new/archived-editorials/editorial-8/

Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada. (2010). Canada’s Historic Places Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.historicplaces.ca/media/18072/81468-parks-s+g-eng-web2.pdf

Stovel, H. (1991). Safeguarding Historic Urban Ensembles in a Time of Change: a Management Guide. Quebec City, QC: Service des Communications.

Tyler, N., Ligibel, T. J., and Tyler, I. R. (2009). Historic Preservation: an Introduction to its History, Principles, and Practice (2nd Ed). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

UNESCO. (1972). Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. UNESCO Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/archive/convention-en.pdf

UNESCO. (1976). Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas. UNESCO Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13133&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

UNESCO. (2005). Vienna Memorandum on World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture - Managing the Historic Urban Landscape. UNESCO Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-48-3.doc

UNESCO. (2007). St. Petersburg Summary Report of the Regional Conference of Countries of Eastern and Central Europe on Management and Preservation of Historic Centers of Cities Inscribed on the World Heritage List. UNESCO Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-47-7.pdf

UNESCO. (2010). A New International Instrument: the Proposed UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape. UNESCO Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001890/189099e.pdf

UNESCO. (2011). Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Including a Glossary of Definitions. UNESCO Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=48857&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

UNESCO (2013a). Background Document. In: International World Heritage Expert Meeting on Visual Integrity, Agra, India, 6-9 March 2013. pp. 1-21. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/events/documents/event-992-12.pdf

UNESCO. (2013b). Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. UNESCO Website. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide13-en.pdf

Veldpaus, L. (2012). Historic Urban Landscapes Approach: A Framework for Assessing its Application. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://ouvwhcitiesandsustainability.blogspot.com/2012_05_01_archive.html

Warren, J. (1998). The Historic Context: Principles and Philosophies. In J. Warren, J. Worthington & S. Taylor (Eds.), Context: New Buildings in Historic Settings (pp. 8-17). New York, NY: Architectural Press.

Wells-Thorpe, J. (1998). From Bauhaus to Boiler house. In: J. Warren, J. Worthington & S. Taylor (Eds.), Context: New Buildings in Historic Settings (pp. 102-114). New York, NY: Architectural Press.

Wilson, S. Jr. (1980). Evolution in a Historic Area’s Tout Ensemble. In: National Trust for Historic Preservation (Ed.), Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship (pp. 151-161). Washington, DC: The Preservation Press.

Zyscovich, B., and Porter, D. R. (2008). Getting Real about Urbanism: Contextual Design for Cities. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR



ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014