COPING WITH CROWDING IN HIGH-DENSITY KAMPUNG HOUSING OF JAKARTA

Evawani Ellisa

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v10i1.790

Abstract

This study aims to draw attention to the architecture of kampung  housing, as an attempt to identify those circumstances under which people live in the context of limited space. A kampung housing is a dense non-formally planned cluster of residential dwellings in urban area, which are packed together in a contiguous area created by a large number of migrants. We tried to determine the way in which the spaces are arranged into a place to live, which implies a certain dynamic of survivability among the kampung’s inhabitants. The research methodology is conducted with questionnaire surveys, interviews, and detailed observations of daily life cycles, dwelling elements, and the pattern of domestic space arrangements. The study revealed that the characteristics of particular high-density settings have been adapted so that kampung inhabitants devised a particular set of rules and behavioral strategies to cope and support themselves in crowded situations.



Keywords

Crowding; Dwelling; Space Arrangement; High Density Kampung; Behavioral Strategies

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abeyasekere, S. (1987). Jakarta: A History, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Altman, I. (1975). the Effects of Crowding and Social Behavior, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

Altman, I. (1978). Crowding: Historical and Contemporary Trends in Crowding Research in Baum, A, and Epstein Y.M (Eds.), Human Response to Crowding, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ambrose, P. (1996b). The Real Cost of Poor Homes: A Critical Review of the Literature, University of Sussex and University of Westminster.

Baker, M., Mc Nicholas, A., Garrett, N., Jones, N., Stewart, J., Koberstein, V., and Lennon, D. (2000). Household crowding a major risk factor for epidemic meningococcal disease in Auckland children, Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 19(10), 983-990.

Baldassare, M. (1988). Residential crowding in the United States: A review of the research, Handbook of Housing and the Built Environment in the U.S. (eds.) E.Huttman and W. van Vliet.

Bourdeau, P. (Ed.) (1986). the Forms of Capital, New York, Greenwood Press.

Brown, S. C., C. A. Mason, J. L. Lombard, F. Martinez, E. Plater-Zyberk, and A. Spokane (2009). The Relationship of Built Environment to Perceived Social Support and Psychological Distress in Hispanic Elders: The Role of ‘Eyes on the Street. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 64b (2): 234–46.

Certeau, M.D. (1984). The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Castels, L. (1967). the Ethnic Profile of Djakarta, Indonesia. 1(April), pp.153-204.

Clark, W.A.V. (1992). Comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of residential mobility and migration. Environmental Planning A 24 1291-1302

Clauson-Kaas, J., Dzikus, A., Surjadi, C., Jensen, H., Hojlyng, N., Aaby, P., Baare, A. and Stephens, C. (1997). Crowding and Health in Low-Income Settlements, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), England: Avebury.

Colombijn, F. (2010). Under construction: Urban space and housing in Indonesia during the decolonization, 1930-1960. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Crothers, C. Kearns, R. and Lindsey, D. (1993). Housing in Manukau City: Overcrowding, Poor Housing and Their Consequences. Working Papers in Sociology No. 27 University of Auckland.

Curry, A., C. Latkin, and M. Davey-Rothwell (2008). “Pathways to Depression: The Impact of Neighborhood Violent Crime on Inner-City Residents in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.” Social Science & Medicine 67: 23–30.

Davies. R.B. Pickles, A.R. (1985). Longitudinal versus cross-sectional methods for behavioral research: a first round knockout. Environmental and Planning A17.pp 1315-1329.

Edwards, J., Fuller, T., Sermsi, and Vorakitphokatorn, S. (1994). Household Crowding and Its Consequences, Colorado: Westview Press.

Evans, G. W., N. M. Wells, and A. Moch. (2003). “Housing and Mental Health: A Review of the Evidence and a Methodological and Conceptual Critique.” Journal of Social Issues 59: 475–500.

Flick, U. (1998). An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Freedman, J. L. (1975). Crowding and Behavior. San Francisco: Freeman.

Funo, S. Yamamoto N. and Silas, J. (2002). Typology of Kampung Houses and Their Transformation Process, a Study on Urban Tissues of an Indonesian City. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/JAABE vol.1 no.2, 193-200.

Funo, Shuji; F Ferianto, Bambang; Yamada, Kyouta (2005). Considerations on typology of Kampung Luar Batang (Jakarta). Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, Vol. 4 (2005) No. 1, 129-136.

Funo, Shuji; F Ferianto, Bambang; Yamada, Kyouta (2004). Considerations on typology of Kampung Luar Batang (Jakarta). Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, Vol. 3 (2004) No. 1, 129-136.

Fuller, T.D., Edwards, J.N., Sermsri, S. and Vorakitphokatorn, S. (1993). Housing, stress and physical well-being: Evidence from Thailand, Social Science Medicine Vol. 36, 11, 173-180.

Gifford, R. (2011). Environmental psychology. In The IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology, Edited by Paul R. Martin, Fanny M.Cheung, Michael Knowles, Michael Kyrios, Lyn Littlefield, J. Bruce Overmier, and Jose M. Prieto. London: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Gove, W., Hughes, M. and Galle, O. (1979). Overcrowding in the home: An empirical investigation of its possible pathological consequences. American Sociological Review Vol. 44 February: 59-80.

Greenfield, R. J. and Lewis, J.F. (1973). An alternative to a density function definition of overcrowding, Housing Urban America J. Pynoos et al (eds.), Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co.

Hall, E. T. (1966). the Hidden Dimension. New York: Doubleday.ks.

Huang, Y. (2003). A room of one's own: housing consumption and residen tial crowding in transitional urban China. Environment and Planning A 2003, volume 35, pages 591 – 614.

Jazwinski, C. (1998). Crowding http://condor.stcloud.msus.edu/~jaz/psy373/7.crowding.html

Jellinek, L. (1995). Seperti Roda Berputar, Perubahan Sosial Sebuah Kampung di Jakarta, Jakarta: PT Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia.

Kato, H. (2012). Report of Preparatory Survey in Cikini. December 26, 2011, Kyoto: Research Institute for Humanity and Nature.

Kent, S. (1990). Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space: an Interdisciplinary Cross-Cultural Study. London: Cambridge University Press.

Krausse, G. H. (1978). Intra-urban variation in kampung settlements of Jakarta: A structural analysis, The Journal of Tropical Geography 46: 11-26.

Lawrence, J.E.S. (1974). Science and sentiment: Overview of research on crowding and human behavior, Psychological Bulletin 81,pp. 712-720.

McCarthy, P. (Ed.) (2003). Urban Slums Report: The Case of Jakarta, Indonesia, World-Bank.

Miller, D. (1987). Material Culture and Mass Consumption, Oxford: Blackwell.

Muller, E. J. & Tighe, J. R. (2007). Making the case for affordable housing: Connecting housing with health and education outcomes. Journal of Planning Literature, 21(4), 371-385.

Ranson, R. (1991). Healthy Housing: A practical guide. London: E. & F. N. Spon and WHO.

Rachman, E. (1995). Jakarta, 50 tahun dalam Pengembangan dan Penataan Kota. Jakarta: Pemerintah Daerah khusus Ibukota Jakarta.

Rodgers, W.L. (1981). Density, crowding and satisfaction with the residential environment, Social Indicators Research 10. pp. 75-102.

Ruts, W. (1987). Cities and Towns in Indonesia. Stuttgart: Gebruder Borntraeger.

Salama, A.M. (2015). Editorial: Advandcing the Debate on Architecture, Planning and Built Environment Research, Archnet-IJAR, Volume 9 – Issue 2- July 2015 – (iv-viii).

Salama, A.M. (2007). Navigating Housing Affordability between Trans-Disciplinary and Life Style Theories the Case of Gulf States, Archnet-IJAR, Volume 1 – Issues 2 – July 2007 (57-56).

Sampson, R. (2003). Neighborhood context of well-being. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46 (3), S53-S64.

Schulz, A., William, D., Israel, B., Becker, A., Parker, E., James, S. & Jackson, J. (2000). Unfair treatment, neighborhood effects, and mental health in Detroit metropolitan area. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 314-332.

Silas, J. (2010). Kampung Improvement Program in Surabaya, in D’Auria, V. et.al. (Eds) Human Settlements Formulation and (re)Calibration, Amsterdam: SUN Architecture Publisher.

Silver, C. (2011). Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century. New York: Routledge.

Somantri, G.R. (2000). Looking at the Gigantic Kampung: Urban Hierarchy and General Trends of Intra-City Migration in Jakarta. Jakarta: FEUI Press.

Sullivan, J. (1992). Local government and community in Java: An urban case study. Singapore, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Suparlan, P. (1984). Kemiskinan di Perkotaan, Jakarta: Obor.

Stokols, D. (1972). on the distinction between density and crowding: Some implications for future research. Psychological Review, 79(3), 275–278.

Tunas, D. (2008). The Spatial Economy in the Urban Informal Settlement. Netherland: International Forum on Urbanism.

Wells, N. M. & Harris, J.D. (2007). Housing quality, psychological distress, and the mediating role of social withdrawal. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 69-78.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR



ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014