AN EVALUATION OF STAIRWAY DESIGNS FEATURED IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD BETWEEN 2000 AND 2012

Karen Kim, Edward Steinfeld

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v10i1.844

Abstract

This paper discusses an evaluation of stairway designs featured in Architectural Record, a leading architectural professional journal, over a thirteen-year publication period (2000 to 2012). Images of stairways were classified as either hazard-free or hazard(s)-present using a hazard identification checklist, and the frequency of visible design hazards was tabulated. A total of 578 stairways were scanned in articles and advertisements, of which 78 (13.5%) were product advertisements. Sixty-one percent of the stairways had at least one visible design hazard including nearly half (47%) in product advertisements. The three most common hazards in stairways were inadequate handrails (161, 27.8%), excessive length of stairway flights (74, 12.8%), and low visual contrast on tread edges (73, 12.6%). The high prevalence of stairway design hazards in the professional literature indicates a need for improved professional education and media attention to safe stairway design.



Keywords

Architecture; Stairway Safety; Evaluation Research; Hazard Identification Checklist; Environmental Design; Design Education

Full Text:

PDF

References

Archea, J., Collins, B. L., & Stahl, F. I. (1979). Guidelines for stair safety. Washington: U. S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards : for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S.

Govt. Print. Off. Arsenault, P. J. (2012). Stair Treads and Nosing. Architectural Record, 200, 181-185.

Association of Architecture School Librarians [AASL] (n.d.). The AASL Core List of Periodicals. Retrieved July 7, 2014, from http://www. architecturelibrarians.org/page-1364618

Bakken, G. M., Cohen, H. H., & Abele, J. R. (2007). Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences. Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company.

Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. D. (1989). Educational research: An introduction (5th ed). New York: Longman.

Boutelle, K. N., Jeffery, R. W., Murray, D. M., & Schmitz, M. K. H. (2001). Using Signs, Artwork, and Music to Promote Stair Use in a Public Building. Am J Public Health, 91(12), 2004-2006.

Brown, W. V., Fujioka, K., Wilson, P. W., & Woodworth, K. A. (2009). Obesity: why be concerned? Am J Med, 122(4 Suppl 1), S4-11.

Caya, C. (2014). Texting while walking injuring 'clueless' pedestrians. WBFO. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from http://news.wbfo.org/post/texting-while-walking-injuring-clueless-pedestrians

Carson, D. H., Archea, J., Margulis, S. T., & Carson, F. E. (1978). Safety on Stairs. U. S. Dept. of Commerce National Bureau of Standards: Washington.

The City of New York. (2010). Active Design Guidelines: Promoting Physical Activity and Health in Design. Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://centerforactivedesign.org/dl/guidelines.pdf

The City of New York. (2013). Mayor Bloomberg Announces First Ever Center For Active Design To Promote Physical Activity And Health In Buildings And Public Spaces Through Building Code and Design Standard Changes. The Official Website of the City of New York. Retrieved August 5, 2013, from http://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/250-13/mayor-bloomberg-first-ever-center-active-design-promote-physical-activity-and

Cohen, J., LaRue, C. A., & Cohen, H. H. (2009). Stairway Falls. Professional Safety, 54(1), 27-32.

Cohen, S. M. (2013). Examining the effects of a health promotion intervention on the use of stairs. Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis, 10(1), 17+.

Danford, G. S., Tauke, B., State University of New York at Buffalo. Center for Inclusive Design & Environmental Access., New York (N.Y.). Mayor's Office for People with Disabilities., New York (N.Y.). Dept. of Design and Construction., American Institute of Architects. New York Chapter., & New York (N.Y.).

Office of the Mayor. (2001). Universal design New York. [New York, N.Y.]: City of New York Office of the Mayor.

den Brinker, B. P. L. M., Burgman, L. J., Hogervorst, S. M. J., Reehorst, S. E., Kromhout, S., & van der Windt, J. (2005). The effect of high-contrast marking of treads on the descent of stairways by low-vision people. International Congress Series, 1282, 502-506.

Den Otter, A. R., Hoogwerf, M., & Van Der Woude, L. H. (2011). The role of tread fixations in the visual control of stair walking. Gait & Posture, 34(2), 169-173.

Dusenberry, D. O., Simpson, H., & DelloRusso, S. J. (2009). Effect of handrail shape on graspability. Applied Ergonomics, 40(4), 657-669.

Hamel, K. A., Okita, N., Higginson, J. S., & Cavanagh, P. R. (2005). Foot Clearance during Stair Descent: Effects of Age and Illumination. Gait & Posture, 21(2), 135-140.

Illuminating Engineering Society [IES]. (n.d.). Light in Design - An Application Guide. Retrieved August 5, 2013, from http://www.iesna.org/PDF/Education/LightInDesign.pdf

International Code Council [ICC]. (2011). 2012 International Building Code (IBC). Country Club Hills, Ill: ICC.

International Code Council [ICC]. (n.d.). Accessible Means of Egress. January 14, 2013, from http://www.iccsafe.org/safety/Documents/MeansofEgressBroch.pdf

Jackson, P. L., & Cohen, H. H. (1995). An In-Depth Investigation of 40 Stairway Accidents and the Stair Safety Literature. Journal of Safety Research, 26(3), 151-159.

Johnson, D. A. & Pauls, J. (2010). Systemic stair step geometry defects, increased injuries, and public health plus regulatory responses. Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2010. London: CRC Press: 453-461.

Johnson, D. A. (2011). Consistency of Dimensions. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Kasahara, S., Okabe, S., Nakazato, N., & Ohno, Y. (2007). Eye Movement Patterns of the Elderly during Stair Descent: Effect of Illumination. Journal of Light & Visual Environment, 31(3), 134-140.

Lee, K. K., Perry, A. S., Wolf, S. A., Agarwal, R., Rosenblum, R., Fischer, S., . . . Silver, L. D. (2012). Promoting Routine Stair Use: Evaluating the Impact of a Stair Prompt Across Buildings. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(2), 136-141.

Levine, D. R., State University of New York at Buffalo. Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access., New York (N.Y.). Mayor's Office for People with Disabilities., New York (N.Y.). Dept. of Design and Construction., & New York (N.Y.).

Office of the Mayor. (2003). Universal Design New York 2. Buffalo, N.Y.: IDeA Publications, Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access [IDeA], University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.

Lewis, A., & Eves, F. (2001). Specific Effects of a Calorie-Based Intervention on Stair Climbing in Overweight Commuters. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 42(2), 257-261.

Maturana, B. C. (2014). Where is the 'problem' in design studio: Purpose and significance of the design task. Archnet-IJAR, 8(3), 32-44.

Mansi, I. A., Mansi, N., Shaker, H., & Banks, D. (2009). Stair Design in the United States and Obesity: The Need for a Change. Southern Medical Journal, 102(6), 610-4.

Maki, B. E., Perry, S. D., & McIlroy, W. E. (1998). Efficacy of Handrails in Preventing Stairway Falls: A New Experimental Approach. Safety Science, 28(3), 189-206.

Maki, B. E. (2011). Handrails. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Miyasike-daSilva, V., & McIlroy, W. E. (2012). Does It Really Matter Where You Look When Walking on Stairs? Insights from a Dual-Task Study. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e44722.

National Safety Council [NSC]. (2011). Injury Facts, 2011 Edition. Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://www.nsc.org/Documents/Injury_Facts/ Injury_Facts_2011_w.pdf

Nicoll, G. (2007). Spatial measures associated with stair use. Am J Health Promot., 21(4S), 346-52.

Novak, A., Komisar, V., Maki, B., & Fernie, G. (2016). Age-related differences in dynamic balance control during stair descent and effect of varying step geometry. Applied Ergonomics, 52, 275-284.

Ormerod, M. (2011). Persons with Disabilities and Older Users. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Pauls, J. (2011a). Injury Epidemiology. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Pauls, J. (2011b). Economics, Including Injury Cost. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Pauls, J. (2011c). Injurious Falls on Stairways: Background for international conference in June 2011. Proceedings of International Conference on Slips, Trips and Falls, Health and Safety Laboratory, UK, June 2011.

Pauls, J. (2012). Inclusive design of home stairways: Public health considerations and implementation challenges. Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Universal Design, Fukuoka, Japan.

Pauls, J. (2013). The pathology of everyday things – stairways – revisited. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Diego, USA.

Pauls, J., & Barkow, B. (2013). Combining risks from two leading factors in stair-related falls. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fall Prevention and Protection, Tokyo, Japan.

Reese, C. D. (2009). Industrial safety and health for infrastructure services. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

Roys, M. S. (2001). Serious Stair Injuries Can Be Prevented by Improved Stair Design. Applied Ergonomics, 32(2), 135-139.

Roys, M. S. (2011). Economics, including injury cost. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Roys, M. S. (2011). Consistency of step dimensions. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Talarico, W., & Nadel, B. A. (2000). Creating Safe and Appealing Public Stairs. Architectural Record, 188(6), 169.

Templer, J. A. (1992). The staircase : studies of hazards, falls, and safer design. MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.

Tiedemann, A. C., Sherrington, C., & Lord, S. R. (2007). Physical and Psychological Factors Associated With Stair Negotiation Performance in Older People. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 62(11), 1259-1265.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank [SJR]. (2014). SJR: Scientific Journal Rankings. Retrieved July 7, 2014, from http://www.scimagojr.com.

Scott, A. (2005). Falls on Stairways – Literature Review. Retrieved January 14, 2014, from http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/hsl_pdf/2005/hsl0510.pdf

Sloan, G. S. (2011). Perception & Cognition. Paper presented at the International Conference on Stairway Usability and Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.

Steinfeld, E., & Maisel, J. (2012). Univers

l design: Creating inclusive environments. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

Ulrichsweb. (2014). ulrichsweb.com(TM) -- The Global Source for Periodicals. Retrieved July 7, 2014, from http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions. com/title/1412613464691/42130

Waugh, C. K. (2004). The Core Periodicals in Career and Technical Education. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 20(2), 27-39.

Zietz, D., & Hollands, M. (2009). Gaze behavior of young and older adults during stair walking. Journal of Motor Behavior, 41(4), 357-365.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR



ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014